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Scientific Processes and Definitions
 

Scientific Processes and Definitions

TestFunda ,  03-Feb-16
Scientific Processes and Definitions

Sr.No.

Scientific Process

Definition

1

Adiabatic process

It is a process in which no heat enters or leaves a system. An adiabatic expansion results in cooling of a gas whereas an adiabatic compression has the opposite effect.

2

Advection

The transfer of heat or matter by the flow of a fluid, esp. horizontally in the atmosphere or the sea.

3

Chromatography

The separation of mixtures into their constituents by preferential adsorption by a solid, as a column of silica (column chromatography)  or a strip of filter paper (paper chromatography)  or by a gel.

4

Combustion

The process of combination of a substance with oxygen producing heat and light.

5

Condensation

It is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase.

6

Conductance

It is the ability of a system to conduct electricity, measured by the ratio of the current flowing through the system to the potential difference across it.

7

Decomposition

The process breakdown of a substance into simpler chemical forms.

8

Degeneracy

Things (usually orbitals) are said to be degenerate if they have the same energy. This term is used in quantum mechanics.

9

Diffraction

Change in the directions and intensities of a group of waves after passing by an obstacle or through an aperture whose size is approximately the same as the wavelength of the waves.

10

Diffusion

It is the process by which fluids and solids mix intimately with one another due to the kinetic motions of the particles.

11

Dilution

The process of making weaker or less concentrated.

12

Distillation

This is when you separate a mixture of liquids by heating it up.  The one with the lowest boiling point evaporates first, followed by the one with the  next lowest boiling point, etc.

13

Double-displacement reaction

The reactions in which the cations of two ionic compounds switch places.

14

Effusion

The flow of a gas through a small aperture under pressure, esp when the density is such that the mean distance between molecules is large compared to the diameter of the aperture.

15

Electrolysis

Process in which electricity is used to break apart a chemical compound.

16

Equilibrium

The state of a chemical reaction in which its forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates so that the concentration of the reactants and products does not change with time.

17

Fermentation

Process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the formation of ethyl alcohol.

18

Fusion

A nuclear reaction in which nuclei of hydrogen combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy.

19

Galvanization

Galvanization (or galvanisation) is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, in order to prevent rusting.

20

Isothermal

An isothermal process is a process or change taking place at constant temperature.

21

Irreversible reaction

Chemical reactions which proceed to completion in one direction only are known as irreversible reactions. In irreversible reactions reactants are completely converted into products in a certain interval of time. In these reactions products do not form reactants again.

22

Neutralization reaction

The reaction of an acid with a base to form water and a salt.

23

Nuclear fission

It is splitting up of a heavy atom (e.g. uranium in two or more new atoms) with enormous release of energy.

24

Nuclear chain reaction

Nuclear chain reaction occurs in radioactive elements charging the nuclei of atoms and yielding atoms of different elements or isotopes of the original elements.

25

Photosynthesis

The process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a by-product.

26

Reversible reaction

A reaction in which the products can make reagents, as well as the reagents making products.

27

Vaporization

Vaporization of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to gas phase.

28

Total internal reflection

It is the phenomenon in which light when traversing from an optically denser to an optically rarer medium strikes the common surface of the two media at such an angle that it is reflected completely in the former medium.

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