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Prominent Historical Events of India
 

Prominent Historical Events of India

TestFunda ,  03-Feb-16

Prominent Historical Events of India

Sr.No.

Event

Date/Year

Personalities

Significance

1

Battle of Kalinga

262-261 BC

Ashoka, Rani Padmavati (presumed)

Kalinga annexed by Maurya Empire. Ashoka embraced Buddhism and preached it during the rest of his life after this war.

2

First Battle of Tarain or Thaneswar

A.D. 1191 and 1192

Prithvi Raj Chauhan, Sultan Shahabuddin Mohammed Ghori

Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori. The Rajput and the Muslim army had a large number of infantry and cavalry.

3

 Second Battle of Tarain

 A.D. 1192

Prithvi Raj Chauhan, Mohammed Ghori

Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Ghori’s victory paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in India.

4

First Battle of Panipat

1526

Babur, Ibrahim Lodhi

This laid the foundation of the Mughal rule in India. It was one of the first battles to use gunpowder, firearms and field artillery.

5

Battle of Khanwa

1527

Babar, Rana Sanga of Mewar

This battle resulted in the defeat of the powerful Rajput confederacy. This marked the first victory of Mughal Emperor Babur.

6

Second Battle of Panipat

1556

Bairam Khan (Akbar’s General), Hemu (the Hindu General and right-hand man of Mohd. Adil Shah).

It ended the Afghan Rule and Akbar took Agra and Delhi without much resistance. The victory of Akbar at the Battle of Panipat in 1556 was the real restoration of the Mughal Power in India.

7

Battle of Talikota

1564- 65

Aliya Rama Raya, Tirumala Deva Raya, Ali Adil Shah I,

Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Wali,

Hussain Nizam Shah I

Rama Raya lost his life in the battle. It destroyed the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar.

8

Battle of Haldighati

1576

Raja Man Singh, Rana Pratap

Though defeated, Rana Pratap refused to accept Mughal authority and carried on warfare till his death.

9

East India Company Establishment

1600

Sir James Lancaster, Queen Elizabeth

The East India Company was granted a Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth to mainly trade in cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, tea and opium.

10

Death of Akbar and accession of Jehangir

1605

NA

He is most appreciated for having a liberal outlook on all faiths and beliefs and during his era, culture and art reached a zenith as compared to his predecessors.

11

Birth of Shivaji and death of Jehangir

1627

NA

Jehangir was the fourth Mughal Emperor from 1605 until his death in 1627. Shivaji led a resistance to free the Maratha people from the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur and the Mughal Empire and established a Hindavi Swarajya. He created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital, and was crowned chhatrapati of the Marathas in 1674.

12

Shah Jahan becomes emperor of India

1628

NA

His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization.

13

Accession of Aurangzeb, Shahjahan imprisoned

1659

NA

Shah Jahan was kept in the private quarters of his royal palace by his son Aurangzeb and thereafter the accession of Aurangzeb began.

14

Shivaji imprisoned by Aurangzeb

1666

NA

Shivaji was imprisoned by Aurangzeb.

15

Death of Shah Jahan

1666

NA

In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell ill with strangury and dysentery. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on 22 January, one of the greatest of the Mughal Emperors died, aged 74.

16

Execution of Guru Teg Bahadur.

1675

NA

He became the 9th Guru of Sikhs on 20 March 1665. Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on the orders of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi, when he refused to accept Islam.

17

Nadir Shah invades India

1739

Nadir Shah, Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah

Nadir Shah's invasion of India was an important foreign invasion of India in 1738-39. His army had defeated the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah at the battle at Karnal and had taken over control of northern India.

18

First Mysore War

1768

Haider Ali, English Army

Haider Ali was defeated by the English relinquishing all his rights over Mysore in favour of the English.

19

Second Mysore War

1780

Haider Ali, the Nizam and the Marathas

Haider Ali defeated the English and took possession of Arcot and became the undisputed master of the Carnatic.

20

Pitt's India Act

1784

British Parliament

The Act set up a system whereby it supervised (regulated) the work of the East India Company but did not take power for itself.

21

Third Mysore War

1790- 92

Tipu Sultan and the British

Tipu Sultan had to submit and was compelled to sign the Treaty of Seringapattam stripped him of half his territory.

22

The Permanent Settlement of Bengal

1793

Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, Governor-General Lord Cornwallis

The act was established by the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues that were to be achieved by land. This affected agricultural methods and productivity and inturn influenced Indian economy and politics.

23

Fourth Mysore War

1799

Arthur Wellesley, Tipu Sultan

Arthur Wellesley defeated Tipu Sultan, which brought the end of Tipu Sultan.

24

Maratha War

1803-05

Thr British and the Marathas

It weakened the Maratha power. The English annexed Tanjore, Surat and Carnatic.

25

Treaty of Amritsar

1809

 Charles T. Metcalfe, Ranjit Singh

Treaty of Amritsar, pact concluded between Charles T. Metcalfe, representing the British East India Company, and Ranjit Singh, head of the Sikh kingdom of Punjab.

26

The Sepoy Mutiny / First War of Independence

1857

Bahadur Shah II

Nana Sahib Peshwa Bakht Khan

Rani Lakshmibai Tantya Tope

Begum Hazrat Mahal

Babu Kunwar Singh

Ishwori Kumari Devi, Rani of Tulsipur, George Anson

Sir Patrick Grant

Sir Colin Campbell

It was this rebellion that led to the dissolution of the East India Company. The British had to rethink and reorganize the army, financial, economic and administrative institutions in India.

27

Foundation of Indian National Congress

1885

Allan Octavian Hume, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee

The Indian National Congress was the largest and most prominent Indian public organization during the freedom struggleand gave hope to millions of hopeful and strong -willed Indians to attain freedom.

28

Tibet Expedition

1904

 Lord Curzon, James R. L. Macdonald,

Francis Younghusband, Amban Wenshuo,

Thirteenth Dalai Lama

The British undertook this expedition under the pretext of the Tibet Frontier Commission. The purpose for this expedition was to resolve the dispute over the border between Tibet and Sikkim.

29

Partition of Bengal

1905

Lord Curzon

The partition took place in October 1905 and resulted in the separation of the Muslim eastern areas from the Hindu western areas. The 'divide and rule' policy was used effectively by the British here.

30

Foundation of Muslim League

1906

 Muhammad Ali Jinnah

All-India Muslim League, founded in 1906 which, under Muhammad Ali Jinnah, led the demand for the partition of India resulting in the creation of Pakistan

31

Delhi Darbar; King and Queen visit India; Delhi becomes the Capital of India

1911

King George V and Queen Mary

The Delhi Durbar was held in December 1911 to commemorate the coronation of King George V and Queen Mary as Emperor and Empress of India. Delhi became the capital of India.

32

Lucknow Pact

1916

Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. In 1916, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, a member of the Muslim League, negotiated with the Indian National Congress to reach an agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country.

33

Montague-Chemsford Reforms introduced

1919

Edwin Samuel Montagu,  Lord Chelmsford

The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.

34

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre at Amritsar

1919

General Reginald E.H. Dyer.

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, on 13 April 1919, took the lives of millions of innocent Indians including numberous women and children who had gathered for a peaceful public meeting. The shooting that took place was ordered by Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer.

35

Khilafat Movement launched

1919 – 1924

Maulana Shaukat Ali, Begum Mohammad Ali

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I.

36

Boycott of Simon Commission

1927

 Sir John Simon,  Clement Attlee

The Simon Commission was set uo to study constitutional reforms in India. It was met with severe protests and hartals by the Indian public.

37

Dandi March

1930

Mahatma Gandhi

The British were taxing the Indian population on salt. This was seen as a sign of injustice and poor governance and so Gandhiji led this march on the principles of satyagraha and broke the salt law.

38

Gandhi Irwin Pact

1931

Mahatma Gandhi,Lord Irwin

This pact was to provide relief to the Indian people. The British agreed to end prosecutions, release political prisoners,

permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops, restore confiscated properties of the satyagrahis,

permit free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the sea-coast and lift the ban over the Congress.

39

Government of India Act

1935

Lord Linlithgow

This act is said to be the longest act proposed by the British. It aimed to give autonomy to provinces of British India, establish a 'Federation of India' and introduce direct elections to the people of British India.

40

Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India

1941

 Subhash Chandra Bose

Bose, who had been ousted from the Indian National Congress in 1939 following differences with the more conservative high command and subsequently placed under house arrest by the British, escaped from India in early 1941.

41

Arrival of Cripps Mission in India; Quit India Movement launched

1942

Sir Stafford Cripps, Mahatma Gandhi

Quit India Movement, 1942 was a furious reaction by the stalwarts of the freedom struggle against the British rule and procrastination in meeting the demands of the people. The Cripps mission, offered vague proposals of a post-war Dominion Status for India, with provincial legislatures and the native states, being under the control of the Indians but the control of Indian defence by the British. This led to dissatisfaction among the Indians.

42

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose forms provisional Azad Hind Fauj and Indian National Army

1943-1944

 Subhash Chandra Bose, Mohan Singh

The Indian National Army was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to secure Indian independence with Japanese assistance.

43

Shimla Conference

1945

Viceroy Archibald Wavell

The conference was convened to agree upon the Wavell Plan which was to establish norms for Indian self-government. It was divisive in nature as it provided separate representation to Muslims and reduced majority powers for both communities in their majority regions.

44

Division of India

1947

Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Jawaharlal Nehru

Partition led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (that later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India).

45

Mahatma Gandhi assassinated

1948

Mahatma Gandhi

He was assassinated on 30 January 1948, shot at point-blank range by Nathuram Godse.

46

Integration of princely states

1948

Vallabhbhai Patel, V. P. Menon

The accession process was largely peaceful except in the case of Jammu & Kashmir (which became bitterly divided between India and Pakistan) and Hyderabad.

47

lndo-Pak War

1971

NA

Pakistan started the war attacking India on Dec 3. India defeated Pakistan on all fronts.  Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation.

48

India explodes a nuclear device

1974

NA

India became 6th nation to explode an atomic bomb

49

India launches 1st satellite

1975

NA

India launched 1st satellite with help of USSR

50

Rohini 1, first Indian satellite, launched into orbit

1980

NA

India Launches SLV-3 into space carrying Rohini Satellite.

51

1st unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan

2008

NA

India launched its 1st unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan

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