Telangana is a region of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It has area of 1,14,840 km2. and its population is 3,06,96,520 according to the 2001 census. The name means "land of Telugu people". It consists of the Telugu speaking parts of the state of Hyderabad.The region lies on the Deccan plateau to the west of theEastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Andhra Pradesh state. Telangana region has 10 districts. They are Warangal,Adilabad,Khamman, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the state capital of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. The Krishna and Godvari rivers flow through the region from west to east.
Grievances of Telangana proponents:-
Telangana is the largest single region of the three regions of Andhra pradesh state covering 41.47% of its total area, is inhabited by 40.54% of the state’s population, contributes about 76% to the state’s revenues(if you exclude center contribution). From Central govt: 19.86%, From Telangana: 61.47%(including 37.17% from capital), From Andhra: 14.71, From Rayalaseema: 3.90%.Among others, alleged injustices in water, budget allocations, jobs are the grievances cited by Telangana proponents.
Irrigation: Within the state of Andhra pradesh,68.5% of catchment area of river Krishna and 69% of catchment area of river Godavari are in the Telangana region. The benefit of irrigation through the canal system under major irrigation projects is accruing substantially, i.e. 74.25%, to the Coastal Andhra region. While the share of Telangana is 18.20%, the remaining 7.55% goes to the Rayalaseema region. State's expenditure on Telangana’s major irrigation projects is just 18.20% of total expenditure.
Education : The share of Telangana as a percent of the total expenditure of the state on salaries of staff in educational institutions in 2001 is as follows:
i. Primary schools (government): 31.44%
ii. Primary schools (aided): 9.86%
iii. Degree colleges (government): 37.85%
iv. Degree colleges (aided): 21.79%
Above numbers includes the expenditure in Capital Hyderabad.
Budget Allocations: Expenditure incurred on this region has never been more than 25% to 30% of total expenditure of Andhra Pradesh. Most years, funds allocated to Telangana were never fully spent.
Jobs: Only 20% of total Government employees, less than 10% employees in secretariate, less than 5% of head of the departments in Andhra Pradesh are from Telangana. In 1985, Government published G.O 610 to remove/transfer all the non-locals in government jobs in Telangana region, against the six point formula. By this time in 1985, 58,000 non-locals have occupied jobs in Telangana region. The Girglaini Commission set up in 2001, came up with a report that around 2 lakh govt. jobs in Telangana region are enjoyed by migrants from Andhra and Rayalaseema regions.
Political power: Andhra Pradesh was ruled by Telangana Chief ministers for only 6-1/2 years out of over five decades of its existance. No Telangana chief minister was in power continuously for more than 2-1/2 years.
Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel all the agreements, accords, formulas, plans and assurances on the floor of legislature and Lok Sabha, in last 50+ years, could not be honoured and Telangana was forced to remain neglected, exploited and backward. They allege that the experiment to remain as one state proved to be a futile exercise and therefore, separation is found to be the best solution
The Actual Issue and Key Points:-